Basel cells are a type of cells found in the skin and produces new skin cells when old ones die off. A cancer in Basel cells is known as Basel cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma is a most common type of skin cancer that causes abnormal appearance in adults affecting the head and neck regions predominantly. Basel cell cancer appears as tumors and looks like abnormal growth, sores, scars, bumps, or red patches. If the cancer started to spread in other parts of the body then it becomes life-threatening.
Data indicates that 3 out of 10 Caucasians get basal cell carcinoma. It begins as small dot like structure on the neck or head portion and intensifies further by developing into thick red patches or eczema. The disorder is very often resembles the symptoms of skin rashes and doctor will diagnose the illness, only after doing biopsy test. The parts which are exposed to hot sun are affected more than other parts of the body and individuals with fair complexion has more chances to get affected with this disorder.
Basal Cell Cancer Causes
Mostly, skin cancers are caused by long-term exposure to the sun or ultraviolet rays. The other causes of Basel cell carcinoma include
- Problems from infections, scars, tattoos, and burns
- Complications from vaccinations
- Exposure to radiation
- Exposure to arsenic
- Chronic inflammatory skin problems
Basel cell carcinoma has a great tendency of recurring, so, it is advised to follow a regular checkup time to time.
The symptoms of Basel cell carcinoma include
- White, pearly, skin colored or pink bump on skin
- Brown, blue or black lesion
- Scaly, flat, reddish patches on the skin
- White, scar like, waxy lesion on the skin
Basel cell carcinoma generally appears as a change in the skin color and shape such as a sore or a growth and cannot cure despite medication. These changes in the skin or lesion generally have different colors and shapes. Basel cell carcinoma usually develops in the sun exposed parts of the body such as head and neck and rarely develops on the covered parts such as trunk, chest or genitals.
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There are several types of Basel cell carcinoma, which include
- Nodular Basel Cell Carcinoma – It is most common type of facial Basel cell carcinoma which has pearly or shiny nodules on a smooth surface.
- Superficial Basel Cell Carcinoma – Most common type of skin cancer in younger adults which usually occur on the upper trunk and shoulder. Multiple thin, translucent micro-lesions are found on the skin.
- Morphemic Basel Cell Carcinoma – It is mainly found on the mid-facial sites and develop a waxy, scar like plaques.
- Basosquamous Basel Cell Carcinoma – Also known as mixed Basel cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma. Infiltrative growth pattern are found in this type of cancer.
- Fibroepithelial Tumor Of Pinkus– It is usually found on the trunk and is a warty plaque.
Factors that increases the risk of developing Basel cell carcinoma include
- High exposure to the sun
- Exposure to the radiation therapy
- People having light skin, red or blond hair or light colored eyes
- Sex- men are more prone to develop cancer than women
- Age more than 50
- A family history of skin cancer
- Use of immune suppressing drugs
- Exposure to arsenic
- Certain genetic disorders such as nevoid Basel cell carcinoma syndrome
- Sensitivity to the sunlight
- Risk of recurring the disease once cured
- Increased risk of developing other types of skin cancer
Diagnosis can be performed by viewing the affected part of the body. The doctor will also analyse medical history, family history of the skin cancer in the patient’s family. A skin biopsy is recommended to analyse the cancer type and severity.
Basal Cell Cancer Treatment
There are many treatment methods are available for Basel cell carcinoma, which depends on the type, size and location of the cancer. Treatment for the Basel cell carcinoma is also depends on its occurrence, whether it is first time or reoccurred. Treatment for Basel cell carcinoma generally involves eliminating the growth of the affected cells. Treatment options include
- Curettage and Electrodessication – This procedure scraped of the growth with a curette. Then, the tumor site is burned with an electro-autery needle. This procedure is extremely effective on small lesions but not much effective on high risk locations of cancer. The treatment can leave a white, round scar. The procedure has 95% success rate.
- Excisional Surgery – The procedure will remove the tumor and surrounding border of the skin with the help of a scalpel. The procedure needs stitches on affected part and may leave a little scar.
- Mohs Micrographic Surgery – This procedure removes the thin layer of tissue that contains the tumor. The frozen tissue layer is then mapped under the microscope. This procedure is often used on the large tumors and has a 99% success rate.
- Cryosurgery – Cryosurgery is used for the cancers that do not spread much and are thin. This procedure freeze and destroy cancerous cells with the help of liquid nitrogen. This procedure has a risk of having nerve damage. Cryosurgery is mostly used for Basel cell carcinoma and people having bleeding disorders. The treatment has 90% success rate.
Natural Home Remedies
Some home remedies for Basel cell carcinoma include
- Vitamin C is best natural remedy for skin cancers. A paste of dimethyl sulfoxide and vitamin C is an excellent remedy for Basel cell carcinoma.
- Food such as whole grains, vegetables, grapes, garlic, cabbage, tomatoes, soybeans, green tea, onions are good in treating Basel cell carcinoma.
- Vitamin E has an ability to protect skin from UV radiation
- Folic acid is very effective in Basel cell carcinoma
- Apple cider vinegar is highly rich in nutrients and highly recommended in the treatment of Basel cell carcinoma
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Backing Soda
- Vitamin B complex
- Omega 3 fatty acid rich food such as fish oil, olive oil
- Black raspberry seed oil
- Myrrh oil, it is rich in curzerene and sesquiterpenoid that are highly beneficial in cancer treatment
- Eggplant extract, it has solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides that are medically proven in treating Basel cell carcinoma
- Frankincense oil
- Pancreatic enzymes
The major preventive way to avoid Basel cell carcinoma is avoid sun light or sunburn. People with fair skin or having a personal or family history of Basel cell carcinoma should protect their skin from sun.
The other preventive methods include
- Stay under the shade while going in sun light
- Stay indoors most of the time, if possible
- Wear fully covered clothes
- Apply Sun screen lotions with SPF 50+
- Avoid sun bath, tanning
Generally, Basel cell carcinoma can be cured by treatment and works well, if the lesion is small in size. According to the research, around 50% of people with Basel cell carcinoma have a tendency to develop it again within the 3 years of developing the first one. Basel cell carcinoma also has an increased risk of developing other skin cancers, so it is advised to visit doctor for regular checkups and examinations.